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Treatment & Prevention

If someone has a seizure for the first time, they should be taken to the emergency room immediately.  First-aid measures should be performed as appropriate, including protecting the person from injury during the seizure.  Make sure they do not inhale any vomit or mucus into the lungs, and keep the airway clear; provide assistance with breathing (CPR) if it becomes necessary.
Treatment may cause the seizures to stop.  Medication, surgical repair of tumors or brain lesions, may be the treatments required.
An isolated seizure with an avoidable trigger, such as fever or toxic reactions, can be treated by reversing or removing the precipitating factor or factors.  An MRI or EEG can determine how likely it will be for seizures to reoccur, and can help determine the need for any ongoing treatments. 
Multiple, repeated seizures usually have to be treated with aniconvulsants (anti-seizure medications), such as phenytoin, or carbamazepine for example. 
Some patients that are more difficult to treat may respond better to a vagal nerve stimulator - a device that stimulates a nerve in the chest and is able to reduce the number of seizures.  Other patients may respond to a surgery in which the abnormal brain cells causing the seizures are removed. 
Informational jewelry or cards (such as Medic-Alert) may need to be worn in order to assist the patient with obtaining prompt medical treatment if a seizure occurs at any time.  (U.S National Library of Medicine) 
Since the cause of epilepsy can be unclear, and may vary from person to person it is not possible to prevent it.  Head injury can be avoided by wearing a helmet during dangerous activities.  Avoid illegal drug use or excessive alcohol intake.  (U.S. National Library of Medicine)

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